Provide a substantive
analysis of the position Below. Please identify at least 1 strength and 1
weakness in this analysis and argument using at least 2 sources including the
bible. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.
Acceptable sources include the textbook, law review articles, peer-reviewed
journal articles, and the Bible.
1) No reasonable individual welcomes civilian casualties. 2) There are no significant military engagements without them.
Below is an excerpt from a formal military review of the Al Firdos bunker strike. The full report can be found following the link in the footer. Also included in the study, but not included here is an explanation that previous attacks on primary bunkers had driven Saddam’s forces to use a series of ancillary bunkers like this one.
General Neal emphasized that despite the bunker’s unknown dual-use
nature, it was a legitimate military target. It had a camouflaged roof, a
chain link and barbed wire perimeter, and armed guards who controlled
access to the facility. In addition to the bunker’s physical reinforcements,
it had upgraded communication equipment and shielding to protect that
equipment from an electromagnetic pulse which results from nuclear
explosions. These features were not found in comparable civilian air raid
shelters in the area. According to US intelligence, in the two weeks
preceding the strike, the bunker had become more active as a command
and control facility as indicated by electronic monitoring. Reconnaissance
photos allegedly depicted military vehicles and personnel active at the
bunker, though the Pentagon would not publicly release the pictures
because then the Iraqis (and presumably other enemies) would know just
how good [US] intelligence was.1
In regards to appropriate targeting of the bunker there are a few overlapping concerns. The first of which is Al Firdos distinction as a legitimate military target. As per Additional Protocol I, Article 52.2, “In so far a objects are concerned, military objectives are limited to those objects which by their nature, location, purpose or use make an effective contribution to military action.”2 If we only take this definition into consideration than the Al Firdos bunker would be considered a valid military target. It was used as a secondary communications hub for the Iraqi forces after the destruction of the primary communications hub. Its destruction would have been a significant step towards blinding the Iraqi military in the area.
In addition to this there were physical indications that marked it as the bunker as a military target. This being primarily, armed guards, a barbed wire perimeter with a camouflaged roof, as well as physical reinforcements and upgraded communications equipment including additional shielding for EMP. Combined, these physical features are enough to distinguish the bunker as a military verse a civilian target.
Article 57 of Additional Protocol 1 also list numerous checks that must be met in order to conduct a military action, especially around civilian populations. In dark irony, the bombing of