In total, you will answer FOUR questions. Each of the first three, and one of the last two. (To answer fully, you probably need to write about a page for each question.)
1. What philosophical problems make it difficult to determine the correct theory of the universe? In your answer, discuss problems of theory choice (e.g., theories of truth, the Quine-Duhem argument, underdetermination, the ambiguity of falsification, the problem of induction, etc.).
2. Compare and contrast the Aristotelian worldview with the Newtonian worldview. In what ways are these systems of beliefs similar and different?
3. What does it mean to say that the Tychonic theory of the planets is empirically equivalent to the Copernican theory of the planets, on the evidence available to Galileo? Are those two theories completely empirically equivalent, or are there observations and arguments that force us to choose one over the other?
Then answer ONE of these:
1. Explain the four principles at the heart of Darwin’s theory of evolution.
2. Choose one of Einstein’s surprising results and explain it.